Control of Respiration
Physiol-18A11 Describe the respiratory response to hypoxaemia in both the awake and anaesthetised patient.
Physiol-15A2 Outline the role of carbon dioxide in the maintenance of ventilation.
Physiol-06A10 List the physiological factors which increase respiratory rate. Include a brief explanation of the mechanism by which each achieves this increase. (also Physiol-02B10, Physiol-95B9)
Mechanics of Breathing
Physiol-18A13 Define and describe lung compliance. Discuss the difference between static and dynamic compliance.
Physiol-13A9 Describe the cough reflex.
Physiol-11A13 Describe the determinants of work of breathing in an adult human at rest. (also Physiol-06B10, Physiol-01B2, Physiol-00A5)
Physiol-10B12 Describe the function of the muscles involved in ventilation. 39%
Physiol-10B9 Describe the factors that affect respiratory system compliance. (also Physiol-10A14, Physiol-03A14)
Physiol-08B13 Explain the concept of time constants and relate these to “fast” and “slow” alveoli.
Physiol-03B13 Describe the factors that affect airways resistance. (also Physiol-99B3, Physiol-98B8)
Pulmonary Gas Volumes and Ventilation
Physiol-15A9 What are the physiological consequences of decreasing functional residual capacity by one litre in an adult? (also Physiol-04A12, Physiol-01A8)
Physiol-05B16 Explain the changes on Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) that take place with the administration of anaesthesia.
Physiol-03B11 Briefly describe the potential causes of a difference between measured end-tidal and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide. (also Physiol-96B7)
Physiol-00B3 Draw an expiratory flow volume curve for a forced expiration from total lung capacity. Describe its characteristics in people with normal lungs, as well as those with obstructive and restrictive lung disease.
Physiol-98A2 Draw a flow/volume curve for a maximum forced expiration in a person with healthy lungs from: (a) Total lung capacity; (b) Function Residual capacity. Explain your curves.
Physiol-97B7 Explain the factors influencing the distribution of ventilation during the inhalation of 500ml of air from Functional Residual Capacity in the erect posture.
Physiol-96B6 Draw a respiratory flow/volume loop and outline how it is obtained. Briefly explain the physiological mechanisms involved in the concept of flow limitation.
Physiol-MAKEUP Describe the single breath nitrogen washout technique
Ventilation Perfusion Inequalities
Physiol-15B3 What affect does placing a patient in the right lateral position have on lung ventilation and perfusion?
Physiol-07A9 Define ‘Venous Admixture’. Briefly explain how venous admixture influences arterial 02 tension and how an increase in inspired 02 concentration may affect this. (also Physiol-02A3, Physiol-95B1 )
Physiol-97A7 Compare the effect on arterial blood C02 and 02 levels of ventilation/perfusion inequalities.
Gas transport in the Blood
Physiol-18B2 Discuss factors that affect oxygen transport from the alveoli to the tissues.
Physiol-14B9 What lower limit of SpO2 would you accept in an ASA 1 young male under general anaesthesia?
Physiol-13A8 Explain how oxygen supply of organs is maintained during isovolaemic haemodilution. (also Physiol-02A1, Physiol-96B5)
Physiol-11B12 Outline the similarities and differences between myoglobin and adult haemoglobin, explaining the physiological relevance of the differences. 24%
Physiol-11A9 Describe the ways in which CO2 is carried in blood. (also Physiol-04B9, Physiol-99B5, Physiol-97A3)
Physiol-10A9 Explain the physiological factors that may lead to a decrease in mixed venous blood oxygen saturation. (also Physiol-00A2, Physiol-96A1)
Physiol-09A16 Outline the effects of acute exposure to air at an altitude where barometric pressure is 347mmHg. What compensatory mechanisms occur with gradual exposure to increasing altitude?
Physiol-07B10 Discuss factors which affect the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in mixed venous blood. (also Physiol-05A12)
Physiol-04A11 What is 2,3-DPG? How is it produced in the red blood cell and how does it interact with haemoglobin? What is its relevance in altitude exposure, anaemia and stored blood? (also Physiol-95A1)
Physiol-03B12 Explain the difference between perfusion limitation and diffusion limitation in the transfer of gas between alveolus and pulmonary capillary. Outline the factors that determine whether gas transfer is perfusion or diffusion limited.
Physiol-99A3 Describe the factors that affect the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide from the alveolus to the blood.
Physiol-96B8 Briefly explain how an oxygen debt arises and how the body deals with it
Physiol-15B09 Briefly outline the differences between the pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation. (also Physiol-12B16, Physiol-04A9)
Physiol-05B9 Describe the gravity dependent processes which affect pulmonary blood flow. What changes take place when the pressure increases in the pulmonary vessels? (also Physiol-97A2)
Physiol-02A4 Outline the physiological factors that influence pulmonary vascular resistance. (also Physiol-00A3)
Other Respiratory Physiology
Physiol-16B1 Describe the respiratory effects of adding positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) to intermittent positive pressure ventilation (PPV). (also Physiol-16A11)
Physiol-14A5 Explain the effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on left ventricular output. (also Physiol-01B1, Physiol-98A1, Physiol-96B3)
Physiol-14A4 Describe the physiological basis of methods used to prevent hypoxaemia prior to intubation in a rapid sequence induction. Include any adverse effects of these methods.
Physiol-12B12 Discuss the physiological causes of early post-operative hypoxaemia.
Physiol-11B14 Describe the changes in respiratory function tests that occur with long term increases in small airways resistance.
Physiol-08B15 Describe the changes that occur with ageing that can affect oxygen delivery to the tissue during moderate exercise.
Physiol-08A16 Discuss the physiological causes of early post-operative hypoxaemia.
Physiol-05A13 Describe the non-respiratory functions of the lung.
Physiol-MAKEUP Describe the beneficial and adverse effects of CPAP/PEEP, and the mechanisms by which these effects occur