Pharmacodynamics

Pharm-13A03 Classify isomers. Briefly write an account of their significance in drugs used in anaesthesia. (also Pharm-06A2,Pharm-00B9,Pharm-95A5)

Pharm-12B03 Define the terms “tolerance” and “tachyphylaxis”. Discuss the different mechanisms by which tolerance can develop, giving examples where appropriate. 45%

Pharm-12A05 Using opioids as examples describe and illustrate with graphs what you understand by the terms “potency”, “efficacy”, “partial agonist”, “competitive antagonist”, and “therapeutic index”. (also Pharm-05B2,Pharm-99,Pharm-95B9,Pharm-93A2)

Pharm-10B7 List the physical properties of oxygen. Discuss the potential adverse effects associated with oxygen administration. (also Pharm-99B15)

Pharm-10A7 Briefly describe the pharmacological role of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor. (also Pharm-97A9)

Pharm-09A7 Outline the subtypes of serotonin (5 hydroxytryptamine) receptors. Discuss pharmacological agents that act at these sites. 45% (also Pharm-08A5)

Pharm-04B1 Briefly describe how drugs produce their pharmacological effects. Illustrate each mechanism with examples. 67% (also Pharm-01A9,Pharm-96B12)

Pharm-03B3 Outline GABA’s role as a neurotransmitter and indicate how its actions may be modified by pharmacological agents. 63% (also Pharm-01A10)

Pharm-03A4 Outline the potential problems associated with additives used to make medicines suitable for intravenous injection. (also 1992)

Pharm-00B15 Write brief notes on latex allergy. (Pharm-98B16)

Pharm-00B11 Describe the structure and function of G proteins 50%

Pharm-97 Briefly describe the drug factors that may predispose to thrombophlebitis

Pharm-96A16 Define therapeutic index and briefly outline its significance. Describe briefly also the therapeutic ratio and the use of the of the CVS/CNS toxicity ratio

1994B2 Briefly explain non-competitive antagonism at receptor sites and give two examples

Pharm-94 Briefly describe the possible mechanism of action of general anaesthetics

Pharm-92A1 Discuss the factors which influence the administration and dosage of drugs in the elderly.

1991 Write short notes on log dose effect curves

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